Hard scientific evidence of the effects of diet, pharmaceutical drugs & lifestyle on health from over 1,400 studies from research centers, universities and peer reviewed scientific journals.

Research by David Evans

Thursday, 20 November 2014

The association between suicidal behavior and low levels of cholesterol in people with schizophrenia.

This study was published in Medical Science Monitor 2014 Aug 21;20:1486-90
 
Study title and authors:
Suicidal behavior in schizophrenia may be related to low lipid levels.
Ainiyet B, Rybakowski JK
Department of Psychiatry, Akerhus Universytetssykehus, Oslo, Norway.
 
This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25141886

The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation between suicidal behaviour and cholesterol levels in schizophrenia patients admitted to a psychiatric hospital during the three months prior to their admission. The study included 148 (69 males, 79 females) schizophrenia patients with an average age of 32 years, all recently admitted to psychiatric hospital due to acute exacerbation of their mental illness. 

The study found:
(a) Schizophrenic men with suicidal thoughts had 21% lower cholesterol levels than schizophrenic men without suicidal thoughts.
(b) Schizophrenic men who attempted suicide had 27% lower cholesterol levels than schizophrenic men without suicidal thoughts.
(c) Schizophrenic women with suicidal thoughts had 26% lower cholesterol levels than schizophrenic women without suicidal thoughts.
(d) Schizophrenic women who attempted suicide had 31% lower cholesterol levels than schizophrenic women without suicidal thoughts.
(e) Schizophrenic men with suicidal thoughts had 21% lower levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol than schizophrenic men without suicidal thoughts.
(f) Schizophrenic men who attempted suicide had 36% lower levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL)cholesterol than schizophrenic men without suicidal thoughts.
(g) Schizophrenic women with suicidal thoughts had 30% lower levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol than schizophrenic women without suicidal thoughts.
(h) Schizophrenic women who attempted suicide had 35% lower levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol than schizophrenic women without suicidal thoughts.
(i) Schizophrenic men with suicidal thoughts had 37% lower triglyceride levels than schizophrenic men without suicidal thoughts.
(j) Schizophrenic men who attempted suicide had 56% lower triglyceride levels than schizophrenic men without suicidal thoughts.
(k) Schizophrenic women with suicidal thoughts had 40% lower triglyceride levels than schizophrenic women without suicidal thoughts.
(l) Schizophrenic women who attempted suicide had 41% lower triglyceride levels than schizophrenic women without suicidal thoughts.

Ainiyet concluded: "The results of our study add to a growing body of evidence showing the association between suicidal behavior and low levels of total cholesterol in people with schizophrenia. In addition, we found that this association may also apply to low total lipids, and, in most cases, to low LDL cholesterol and triglycerides".

Saturday, 15 November 2014

Suicide associated with low cholesterol

This study was published in the Journal of Affective Disorders 2004 Aug;81(2):161-6
 
Study title and authors:
Clinical application of low serum cholesterol as an indicator for suicide risk in major depression.
Kim YK, Myint AM
Department of Psychiatry, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. yongku@korea.ac.kr
 
This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15306143

This study explored the relationship between cholesterol levels and suicide risk in patients with depression. The study included 149 major depressive disorder patients admitted to an emergency room following a suicide attempt, 149 non-suicidal depressive controls, and 251 normal controls.

The study found:
(a) Depressed suicidal patients had 21% lower cholesterol levels than the normal subjects.
(b) Depressed non-suicidal patients had 5% lower cholesterol levels than the normal subjects.
(c) In suicide patients, cholesterol levels were 12% lower in violent suicide patients than non-violent suicide patients.

This study suggests that low cholesterol levels are associated with an increased risk of suicide.

Sunday, 9 November 2014

Low cholesterol levels linked to mania

This study was published in the Journal of Affective Disorders 2007 Jan;97(1-3):247-51

Study title and authors:
Platelet serotonin and serum lipids in psychotic mania.
Sagud M, Mihaljevic-Peles A, Pivac N, Jakovljevic M, Muck-Seler D.
University Hospital Center Zagreb, Department of Psychiatry, Kispaticeva 12, 10 000 Zagreb, Croatia.

This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16820211

One of the aims of this study was to determine the relationship between cholesterol levels and mania. The study included 40 male patients with type I bipolar affective disorder, current episode mania (DSM-IV criteria), and in 32 healthy male subjects.

The study found:
(a) The cholesterol levels of the patients with mania were 14% lower than the cholesterol levels of the healthy subjects.
(b) The HDL cholesterol levels of the patients with mania were 7% lower than the HDL cholesterol levels of the healthy subjects.
(c) The LDL cholesterol levels of the patients with mania were 20% lower than the LDL cholesterol levels of the healthy subjects.

The study shows that patients with mania have low levels of cholesterol and LDL cholesterol compared to healthy people.

Friday, 31 October 2014

Low cholesterol levels weaken the heart

This study was published in Circulation Journal 2014 Oct 30
 
Study title and authors:
Low Blood Pressure, Low Serum Cholesterol and Anemia Predict Early Necessity of Ventricular Assist Device Implantation in Patients With Advanced Heart Failure at the Time of Referral From Non-Ventricular Assist Device Institutes.
Fujino T, Kinugawa K, Hatano M, Imamura T, Muraoka H, Minatsuki S, Inaba T, Maki H, Kinoshita O, Nawata K, Yao A, Ono M, Komuro I.
Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo.
 
This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25354551

A ventricular assist device (VAD) is a mechanical pump that's used to support heart function and blood flow in people who have weakened hearts. The device takes blood from a lower chamber of the heart and helps pump it to the body and vital organs, just as a healthy heart would.

This study analysed the factors predicting early necessity of a ventricular assist device in patients with advanced heart failure. The study included 46 patients who had a history of hospitalisation for heart failure management.

Regarding cholesterol levels, the study found that patients with cholesterol less than 144 mg/dL (3.7 mmol/L) had a 709% increased risk of early necessity of a ventricular assist device compared to patients with higher cholesterol levels.  

Wednesday, 22 October 2014

Statins have a significant negative impact on quality-of-life

This study was published in Pharmacotherapy 2009 Jul;29(7):800-11
 
Study title and authors:
Statin-associated adverse cognitive effects: survey results from 171 patients.
Evans MA, Golomb BA.
Department of Medicine, University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0995, USA.
 
This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19558254

The objective of the study was to characterize the adverse cognitive effects of statins. In the study, a survey was completed by 171 patients (age range 34-86 yrs) who had self-reported memory or other cognitive problems associated with statin therapy.

The study found:
(a) Of 143 patients who reported stopping statin therapy, 128 (90%) reported improvement in cognitive problems, sometimes within days of statin discontinuation.
(b) In some patients, a diagnosis of dementia or Alzheimer's disease reportedly was reversed.
(c) 19 patients whose symptoms improved or resolved after they discontinued statin therapy and who underwent rechallenge with a statin exhibited cognitive problems again (multiple times in some).
(d) Higher potency statins led to higher rates of cognitive-specific adverse drug reaction.
(e) Quality of life was significantly adversely affected.

Evans concludes: "Findings from the survey suggest that cognitive problems associated with statin therapy have variable onset and recovery courses, a clear relation to statin potency, and significant negative impact on quality-of-life".

Saturday, 27 September 2014

Statin users have an increased risk of cataract

This study was published in the Journal of the American Medical Association Ophthalmology 2013 Sep 19

Study title and authors:
Association of Statin Use With Cataracts: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.
Leuschen J, Mortensen EM, Frei CR, Mansi EA, Panday V, Mansi I.
Wilford Hall Ambulatory Surgery Center, San Antonio, Texas2San Antonio Military Medical Center, San Antonio, Texas.

This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24052188

The objective of the study was to compare the risks for development of cataracts between statin users and nonusers. The study included 6,972 statin users who were compared with 6,972 nonusers.

The study found:
(a) The risk for cataract was 9% higher among statin users in comparison with nonusers.
(b) In patients with no comorbidities according to the Charlson Comorbidity Index, (the Charlson comorbidity index predicts the ten-year mortality for a patient who may have a range of comorbid conditions, such as heart disease, AIDS, or cancer a total of 22 conditions), the risk for cataract was 27% higher among statin users in comparison with nonusers.

Leuschen concludes: "The risk for cataract is increased among statin users as compared with nonusers".

Sunday, 14 September 2014

Statin users have a 26% increased risk of liver function test abnormalities

This study was published in Pharmacotherapy 2004 May;24(5):584-91
 
Study title and authors:
Statins and liver toxicity: a meta-analysis.
de Denus S, Spinler SA, Miller K, Peterson AM.
Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, University of the Sciences in Philadelphia, PA 19103-4495, USA.
 
This study can be accessed at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15162892

Liver function tests measure various chemicals in the blood made by the liver. An abnormal result indicates the presence of liver disease.

The objective of the study was to assess the risk of liver function test abnormalities with the use of statins. The study was a meta-analysis of 13 randomized, placebo-controlled trials of statins including 49,275 patients.

The study found that statin users had a 26% increased risk of liver function test abnormalities compared to non users.